1 Samuel 1


1 Now there was a certain man of Ramathaim-zophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite: 2 He had two wives; the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah: Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.


  • God’s plan is for one wife, not two or more.
  • Genesis 2:23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she will be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.
  • 1Timothy 3:2 A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behavior, given to hospitality, apt to teach;


3 This man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice to the LORD of hosts in Shiloh. The two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD, were there. 4 And when the time came that Elkanah offered, he gave portions to Peninnah his wife, and to all her sons and her daughters: 5 But he gave a double portion to Hannah; for he loved Hannah: but the LORD had closed her womb. 6 And her adversary also provoked her sorely, to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb. 7 And as he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of the LORD, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat. 8 Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why do you weep? And why do you not eat? And why is your heart grieved? Am not I better to you than ten sons?


  • ‘She provoked her,’ tells us it was the other wife who provoked Hannah.
  • God uses trials to build our faith.
  • 1Peter 1:7 That the trial of your faith, being much more precious than of gold that perishes, though it is tried with fire, might be found to praise and honor and glory at the appearing of Jesus Christ:
  • Psalm 37:4 Delight yourself also in the LORD; he will give you the desires of your heart.


9 So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat on a seat by a post of the temple of the LORD. 10 And she was bitter of soul, and prayed to the LORD, and wept greatly. 11 And she vowed a vow and said, O LORD of hosts, if you will surely look on the affliction of your handmaid, and remember me, and not forget your handmaid, but will give to your handmaid a man child, then I will give him to the LORD all the days of his life, no razor will come on his head. 12 And as she continued praying before the LORD, Eli watched her mouth. 13 Now Hannah, she spoke in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: so Eli thought she was drunk. 14 And Eli said to her, How long will you be drunk? Put away your wine from you. 15 And Hannah answered and said, No my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have not drunk wine or strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the LORD. 16 Do not consider your handmaid a daughter of evil: for I have spoken here out of the abundance of my complaint and grief. 17 Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant you your petition that you have asked of him. 18 And she said, Let your handmaid find grace in your sight. So the woman went her way, ate, and her countenance was no longer sad.

  • God listens. God is available all the time to hear our prayers, the pouring out of our troubles to Him.
  • Psalm 65:2O you that hears prayer, to you all flesh will come.


God remembered Hannah


19 And they rose up in early the morning, worshipped before the LORD, and returned and came to their house to Ramah: and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the LORD remembered her. 20 Therefore it happened when the time came after Hannah had conceived, she bare a son, and called his name Samuel/asked of God, saying, Because I have asked him of the LORD.


  • Genesis 30:22 And God remembered Rachel, and God listened to her, and opened her womb.


21 And the man Elkanah, and all his house, went up to offer to the LORD the yearly sacrifice, and his vow. 22 But Hannah did not go up; for she said to her husband, I will not go up until the child is weaned; then I will bring him to appear before the LORD, and stay there forever. 23 And Elkanah her husband said to her, Do what seems good to you; wait until you have weaned him; only the LORD establish his word. So the woman remained, and nursed her son until she weaned him.


  • Matthew 24:35 Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away.


24 And when she had weaned him, she took him up with her, with three bull, one ephah of flour, a bottle of wine, and brought him to the house of the LORD in Shiloh: the child was young. 25 And they killed a bull, and brought the child to Eli. 26 And she said, Oh my lord, as your soul lives, my lord, I am the woman that stood by you here praying to the LORD. 27 I prayed for this child; and the LORD has given me my petition that I asked of him: 28 Therefore I also have lent him to the LORD; as long as he lives he will be lent to the LORD. And he worshipped the LORD there.


  • God granted her petition.
  • Samuel was dedicated to the Lord all the days of his life.
  • He never cut his hair and he never drank wine because that was the symbol of being dedicated to the lord as a Nazarite (Numbers 6 explains fully).
  • Verse 11 shows that Hannah dedicated Samuel as a Nazarite.
  • Matthew 21:22 all things, whatsoever you ask in prayer, believing, you will receive.
  • John 16:24 Until now have you asked nothing in my name: ask, and you will receive, that your joy may be full.


                                             1 Samuel 2


There is none as holy as God


1 And Hannah prayed saying, My heart rejoices in the LORD, my horn is exalted in the LORD: my mouth is enlarged over my enemies; because I rejoice in Your salvation. 2 There is none holy as the LORD: there is none beside You: neither is there any rock like our God.


  • Holy means set apart.
  • There is no other being like God Almighty. He is far and above all other beings in every way.
  • God is infinite. No other beings are infinite.
  • He is the holiest being that exists.
  • He knows all things and has all power. No others do.
  • He is stability. He never changes.
  • Psalm 40:2 He brought me up also out of an horrible pit, out of the miry clay, and set my feet on a rock, and established my goings.
  • Isaiah 6:3…Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory.


3 Talk no more so exceeding proudly; let no arrogance come out of your mouth: for the LORD is a God of knowledge, and by him actions are weighed.

4 The bows of the mighty men are broken, and those that stumbled are clothed with strength. 5 Those that were full have hired out themselves for food; and those that were hungry are full: so that the barren has born seven; and she that has many children is grown feeble.


  • God weighs the actions of people to see if they are of any value: just like metal is weighed and the greatest worth is given to the heaviest metal, gold.
  • 1John 3:20…God is greater than our heart, and knows all things.


He has all power over life and death


6 The LORD kills, and makes alive: he brings down to the grave, and brings up. 7 The LORD makes poor, and makes rich: he brings low, and lifts up. 8 He raises the poor up out of the dust, and lifts the beggar up from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory: for the pillars of the earth are the LORD’s, and he has set the world on them.


  • Ezekiel 1:26-28 describes God’s the throne of glory. He has offered to share it with all since the beginning. This verse shows us that the Old Testament saints knew that.
  • John 10:28 And I give to them eternal life; and they will never perish, neither will any man pluck them out of my hand.
  • Revelation 1:18 I am he that lives, and was dead; and, behold, I am alive for evermore, Amen; and have the keys of hell and of death.
  • Revelation 3:21 To him that overcomes I will grant to sit with me in my throne, even as I also overcame, and am set down with my Father in his throne.


9 He guards the feet of his saints, but the wicked will be silent in darkness; for no man will prevail by strength. 10 The adversaries of the LORD will be broken to pieces; he will thunder out of heaven upon them: the LORD will judge the ends of the earth; and he gives strength to his king, and exalts the horn of his anointed. 11 Then Elkanah went to Ramah to his house. And the child ministered to the LORD before Eli the priest. 12 Now the sons of Eli were sons of evil; they did not know the LORD. 13 And the priests’ custom with the people was that when any man offered sacrifice, the priest’s servant came, while the flesh was in boiling, with a flesh-hook of three teeth in his hand; 14 And he struck it into the pan, or kettle, or caldron, or pot; all that the flesh-hook brought up the priest took for himself. They did this in Shiloh to all the Israelites that came there. 15 Also before they burnt the fat, the priest’s servant came, and said to the man that sacrificed, Give the priest flesh to roast; he will not have boiled flesh from you, but raw. 16 And if any man said to him, Let them burn the fat first, and then take as much as your soul desires; then he would answer him, No; give it to me now: if not, I will take it by force. 17 Therefore the sin of the young men was very great before the LORD: for men abhorred the offering of the LORD.


  • These sacrifices were pictures of the death of God’s Son to cleanse away our sin.
  • A part of certain offerings was given to the priests as food.
  • It was done after the gift was offered to God.
  • Taking for themselves first was like stealing gifts brought to God.
  • They were dishonoring the house of God, and misleading and disheartened those who came to worship God.


18 But Samuel ministered before the LORD, being a child, clothed with a linen ephod. 19 Moreover his mother made him a little coat, and brought it to him from year to year when she came up with her husband to offer the yearly sacrifice. 20 And Eli blessed Elkanah and his wife and said, The LORD give you seed of this woman for the loan that she has lent to the LORD. And they went to their own home. 21 And the LORD visited Hannah so that she conceived, and bare three sons and two daughters. And the child Samuel grew before the LORD. 22 Now Eli was very old. And he heard all that his sons did to all Israel; how they lay with the women that assembled by troops at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. 23 And he said to them, Why do you do such things? I hear of your evil dealings from all the people.


  • Under God’s law, adultery was punishable by death.
  • Adultery is inspired by evil forces that want to destroy man and all the blessing God wants to give man.
  • The leadership of God’s people is a sacred trust.
  • Not only were the people not being taught properly about God, they were being abused.


24 No, my sons; it is not a good report that I hear: you make the LORD’s people transgress/cry out. 25 If one man sins against another, the judge will judge him: but if a man sins against the LORD, who will intercede for him? But they would not listen to the voice of their father, because the LORD desired to kill them.


  • God knew they weren’t going to change.
  • 2Peter 3:9The Lord is not slack concerning his promise, as some men count slackness; but is longsuffering toward us, not willing that any perish, but that all come to repentance.


26 And the child Samuel grew and was in favor both with the LORD, and also with men. 27 And a man of came God to Eli and said to him, The LORD says this, Didn’t I plainly appeared to the house of your father when they were in Egypt in Pharaoh’s house? 28 And didn’t I choose him out of all the tribes of Israel to be my priest, to offer on my altar, to burn incense, to wear an ephod before me? And didn’t I give to the house of your father all the offerings made by fire of the children of Israel? 29 Why do you kick at my sacrifice and at my offering that I commanded in my dwelling; and honor your sons above me, to make yourselves fat with the best of all the offerings of Israel my people?


  • God always gives fair warning of coming judgment.


He honors those who honor Him


30 Therefore the LORD God of Israel says, I said indeed that your house, and the house of your father, would walk before me forever: but now the LORD says, That will never happen; for I honor those that honor me, and those that despise me will be lightly esteemed. 31 Behold, the days come, that I will cut off your arm, and the arm of your father’s house, so that there will not be an old man in your house. 32 And you will see an enemy/affliction in my dwelling, in all the wealth that God will give Israel: and there will not be an old man in your house forever. 33 And the men of your house, that I do not cut off from my altar will consume your eyes, and grieve your heart: and all the increase of your house will die in the flower of their age.


  • God judges rightly.
  • Galatians 6:7 Do not be deceived; God is not mocked: for whatever a man sows, that is what he will reap.


34 And this will be a sign that will come to you, on your two sons, on Hophni and Phinehas; both of them will die in one day. 35 And I will raise up for myself a faithful priest, that will do according to what is in my heart and in my mind: and I will build him a sure house; and he will walk before my anointed forever. 36 And every one that is left in your house will come and crouch to him for a piece of silver and a bite of food and will say, Please put me into one of the priests’ offices, that I may eat a bit of food.


  • Walking before His anointed forever is a permanent place before Jesus Christ in the new heavens and the new earth.
  • Isaiah 66:22 For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, will remain before me, says the LORD, so will your seed and your name remain.
  • 2Peter 3:13 But we, according to his promise, look for new heavens and a new earth in which dwells righteousness.


                                            1 Samuel 3


God calls to us


1 And the child Samuel ministered to the LORD before Eli. And the word of the LORD was precious in those days; there was no open vision.


  • Matthew 24:35 Heaven and earth will pass away but my word will not pass away.
  • John 6:63 The words I speak to you they are Spirit and they are life.


2 And it happened at that time, when Eli had laid down in his place, and his eyes began to grow dim so that he could not see; 3 Before the lamp of God went out in the temple of the LORD where the ark of God was, and Samuel had laid down to sleep, 4 that the LORD called Samuel: and he answered, Here am I. 5 And he ran to Eli and said, Here I am; you called me. And he said, I did not call; lie down again. And he went and lay down. 6 And the LORD called again, Samuel. And Samuel arose and went to Eli, and said, Here I am; you called me. And he answered, I did not call, my son; lie down. 7 Now Samuel did not yet know the LORD; the word of the LORD was not yet revealed to him. 8 And the LORD called Samuel the third time. And he arose and went to Eli and said, Here I am; you called me. Then Eli perceived that the LORD had called the child. 9 So Eli said to Samuel, Go, lie down: and if he calls you, you say, Speak, LORD for your servant hears. So Samuel went and lay down in his place. 10 And the LORD came, and stood, and called as at other times, Samuel, Samuel. Then Samuel answered, Speak, for your servant hears.


  • God came and stood by Samuel.
  • Imagine the LORD, the Creator of the universe coming to stand by your bed to talk to you.
  • Psalm 50:1 The mighty God, even the LORD, has spoken, and called the earth from the rising of the sun to the its going down.


11 And the LORD said to Samuel, Behold, I will do a thing in Israel, at which both the ears of every one that hears it will tingle. 12 In that day I will perform against Eli all things that I have spoken concerning his house: when I begin, I will also make an end. 13 For I have told him that I will judge his house forever for the iniquity which he knows; because his sons made themselves vile and he did not restrain them. 14 And I have sworn to the house of Eli, that the iniquity of Eli’s house will not be purged with sacrifice or offering forever.


  • The sons of Eli were meeting their own need and desires by preying on God’s flock (1 Samuel 1, 2).
  • They were the leaders of God’s people.
  • They were disorderly in their duties, they stole the offerings of God’s people, and ‘lay’ with the women who gathered at the door of the tabernacle (adultery).
  • God called this vile and knew that Eli wasn't going to restrain them.
  • Adultery was a capitol offense punished by stoning.
  • How much worse that they were the priests, the intercessors and examples to God's people.
  • Abraham made certain that those under His authority followed the ways of the LORD.
  • Genesis 18:19 For I know him, that he will command his children and his household after him, and they will keep the way of the LORD, to do justice and judgment; that the LORD may bring on Abraham that which he has spoken of him.


15 And Samuel lay until the morning, and opened the doors of the house of the LORD. And Samuel feared to show Eli the vision. 16 Then Eli called Samuel and said, Samuel my son. And he answered, Here I am. 17 And he said, What is the thing that the LORD has said to you? I beg you do not hide it from me: God do so to you, and more also, if you hide anything from me of all the things that he said to you. 18 So Samuel told him every word, and hid nothing from him. And he said, It is the LORD: let him do what seems good to him.


  • God always does what is perfectly right. He has not done one wrong thing ever. His perfection is absolute. He is just and right. Always! God allows man to bring suffering on themselves for high and holy purposes and uses it to cleanse us of evil, wrong, and self-centeredness.
  • Deuteronomy 32:4 He is the Rock, his work is perfect: for all his ways are judgment: a God of truth and without iniquity, just and right is he.
  • Psalm 135:6 Whatever the LORD pleased, that is what did he in heaven, and in earth, in the seas, and all deep places.


19 And Samuel grew, and the LORD was with him, and let none of his words fall to the ground. 20 And all Israel from Dan to Beer-sheba knew that Samuel was established to be a prophet of the LORD. 21 And the LORD appeared again in Shiloh: for the LORD revealed himself to Samuel in Shiloh by the word of the LORD.


  • God was with Samuel. He brought all Samuels words to pass. God’s prophets always were 100 percent accurate or they were not from Him (Deuteronomy 18:22).
  • God revealed Himself to Samuel by His word.
  • At the tabernacle where Samuel served were the texts of Genesis through Deuteronomy and all other words from God up to that time.
  • We have 1,189 chapters of His word today in the Holy Bible.
  • He has revealed Himself to us in His word.
  • Each chapter is a different portrait of our wonderful LORD.
  • 2Peter 1:21… the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.
  • John 1:14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.




1 Samuel 1-3


  • God remembered Hannah
  • There is none as holy as God
  • He has all power over life and death
  • He honors those who honor Him
  • He calls to us